If you are swing/day trading these matter. If you are just investing in for long term, then these don't actually matter **so much**
I will answer 3, since i use them and do not feel i will be mistaking, the others someone else can answer so i don't spread bad info.
Limit order (buy) - You put in a price, and the MM will ONLY buy the stock if the price crosses that value. If price is at 20.00 and your limit is at 19.82. Your execution will only start once the price drops to 19.82.
Stop order (buy/sell) - You put in a price, when the market hits that price. Your order is turned into a market order. Buy your buy/sell price may very if the spread is high
Trailing stop - You put can use % or $ in your value. If the price is at 20.00 and you already own shares and you put in a 1$ trailing stop, then if the price ever falls below 1$ of its highest price it will sell. So if the price hits 20.01, then drops back down, your sell order will happen at 19.01. If the price goes up to 20.50, and then back down to like 18. Your sell order should happen at 18.01.
Trailing stops i think are great for quick day trades, i use it the most. I don't think pros do it, they use hard numbers, but i like security it NOT losing money once i have a winner in hand.
Quick youtube search.https://youtube.com/watch?v=R7MQsTuBWQ8https://youtube.com/watch?v=TeHmx3H54jo
I would search around on investopedia, their videos look good